Have you ever thought why you see a bicycle as a complete object , not as a collection of different parts (wheel , handle , paddle). We call this process as form perception. According to Gestalt psychologists (Gestalt means a regular figure), most primitive organisation takes place in the form of figure ground segregation . Have you ever observed words on a page , or a painting on wall , birds in the sky , the words , the painting , the birds stand out from background and we perceive them as figure while page , wall , sky stay behind the figure and are perceived as background. Still not getting ? Look at the figure below. What do you see?
You’ll see either the white part of the figure which is vase or black part of figure which looks like 2 faces. Interesting no?Reason being that humans perceive the world in organised wholes rather than in discrete parts.
Following are the PRINCIPLE OF PERCEPTUAL ORGANISATION to explain this phenomenon.
1.Principle of proximity
What do you see in the figure? It doesn’t look like a square pattern of dots but a series of columns of dots. Thus, objects that are close together in space are perceived as belonging together as a group. This is the first principle of perceptual organisation .
2.Principle of similarity
In this figure, the circles and squares are evenly spaced to overcome the proximity principle. Instead we tend to see alternating columns of circles and squares.
3. Principle of continuity
In this figure, you must have identified two curves A-B and C-D crossing than to identify four curves meeting at center O .Thus , we tend to perceive objects as belonging together if they appear to be forming a continuous matter.
4. Principle of smallness
What do you see in the picture?
Your are more likely to see a black cross rather than a white cross within the circle. This is because we tend to perceive smaller areas as figures against a larger background.
5.Principle of symmetry
Here , you see black areas as figures(due to symmetrical properties) against white asymmetrical background . This is the principle of symmetry.
6.Principle of surroundedness
Look at the above picture . What do you see ? You see four figures against the white background rather than the word TIE. Thus, we tend to perceive the areas surrounded by others as figures.
7.Principle of closure
Lastly , what do you see in this picture? You must have perceived them as a circle and a square rather than its separate parts because of your tendency to fill gaps in object given by our sensory input. This is the last principle of perceptual organisation .
How far do you find it interesting . Do comment in the comments section below.